International Journal of History ISSN: 1309 4173 (Online) 1309 4688 (Print)

Yıl:2021 Cilt: 13  Sayı: 2  Alan: Tarih

Prof. Dr. Ali Açıkel - Şule Sema Alkoç
Şer’iyye Sicillerine Göre Tokat’ta Aile (1811-1826)
 
Osmanlı toplumu çok dinli, çok dilli ve çok kültürlü bir yapıya sahiptir. Bu yapı toplumun en küçük birimi olan aileye de yansımıştır. Farklı kültürlere sahip ailelerin her ne kadar birbirinden yapısal farkları olsa da ortak özellikleri olduğu da unutulmamalıdır. Sonuçta aileler bir araya gelince bütüncül bir şekilde Osmanlı toplumunu oluşturmaktadır. Osmanlı toplumunun esasını oluşturan ailenin yapısı ve özellikleri hakkında bu güne kadar şer‘iyye sicilleri, tahrir defterleri ve benzeri kayıtlara dayalı olarak birçok araştırmalar yapılmıştır. Bu çalışmalar genelde şehir ölçeğinde ve sınırlı süreler esas alınarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Osmanlı döneminde Tokat şehrinde aile yapısı üzerine de benzer çalışmalar yapılmış olsa da gerek tarih aralığının kısa olması gerekse incelenen belgelerin azlığından dolayı tatmin edici düzeyde konu ortaya konamamıştır. Bu konuda zaman aralığı ve belge sayısı artırılarak daha kapsamlı bir araştırma yapılması gerekmektedir. Bu ihtiyaçtan yola çıkılarak, Tokat’a ait 1811-1826 yılları arasındaki 15, 20, 25 ve 30 numaralı Şer’iyye Sicillerinde bulunan toplam 367 tereke kaydı incelenmiştir. Ayrıca Tokat’ta ailenin teşkili, aile birliğinin bozulması ve ailede sosyal güvenlik konularında şer‘iye sicillerindeki örnek i‘lâm ve hüccetlerden istifade edilmiştir. Çalışmadaki temel amaç ailenin oluşumu, aileyi oluşturan kadın, erkek ve çocukların nicelik ve nitelikleri; ailede din, meslek, unvan, lakap, mirasçılar ve mal varlığı ile sosyal yaşam alanı mahalle hakkında tespitler yaparak Osmanlı geleneksel toplumunu Tokat örneğinde ele almak olacaktır. Böylece Tokat ölçeğinde incelenen aile yapısı, Osmanlı toplum yapısını da anlamaya katkı sağlayacaktır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Osmanlı, Aile, Toplum, Tokat, Şer‘iyye Sicili

DOI Number: 10.9737/hist.2021.993

Family in Tokat According To the Court Registers (1811-1826)
 
Ottoman society has a multi-religious, multilingual and multicultural structure. This structure is reflected in the family, the smallest unit of the society. It should not be forgotten that families with different cultures have common features, although they have structural differences from each other. As a result, when families come together, they form the Ottoman society in a holistic way. Many researches have been made on the structure and characteristics of the family, which constitutes the basis of Ottoman society, based on the court registers, tahrir registers and similar records until present day. These studies were generally carried out on a city scale and based on limited durations. Although similar studies were carried out on family structure in Tokat city during the Ottoman period, the subject could not be presented at a satisfactory level due to the short date interval and the scarcity of the documents examined. A more comprehensive research is required by increasing the time interval and the number of documents. Based on this need, a total of 367 estate records in the Court Registers numbered 15, 20, 25 and 30 belonging to Tokat between the years 1811-1826 were examined. In addition, judicial decrees and documents in the Court Registers on the establishment of the family, the breakdown of family unity and social security in the family in Tokat were benefited. The main purpose of the study will be to examine the Ottoman traditional society in the example of Tokat by making determinations about the formation of the family, the quantity and quality of women, men and children that make up the family; the religion, profession, title, nickname, inheritors, property in the family and social life rea. Thus, the family structure examined in Tokat scale will contribute to understanding the Ottoman social structure. Many researches have been made on the structure and characteristics of the family, which constitutes the basis of Ottoman society, based on the court registers, tahrir registers and similar records until present day. These studies were generally carried out on a city scale and based on limited durations. Although similar studies were carried out on family structure in Tokat city during the Ottoman period, the subject could not be presented at a satisfactory level due to the short date interval and the scarcity of the documents examined. A more comprehensive research is required by increasing the time interval and the number of documents. Based on this need, a total of 367 estate records in the Court Registers numbered 15, 20, 25 and 30 belonging to Tokat between the years 1811-1826 were examined. In addition, judicial decrees and documents in the Court Registers on the establishment of the family, the breakdown of family unity and social security in the family in Tokat were benefited. The main purpose of the study will be to examine the Ottoman traditional society in the example of Tokat by making determinations about the formation of the family, the quantity and quality of women, men and children that make up the family; the religion, profession, title, nickname, inheritors, property in the family and social life rea. Thus, the family structure examined in Tokat scale will contribute to understanding the Ottoman social structure.

Keywords: Ottoman, Family, Society, Tokat, Court Register

DOI Number: 10.9737/hist.2021.993

Tam MetinDetay