Fertile river basins played an important role in the historical development of western Anatolia. In this context, ancient Lydia which composed a great part of modern Aegean region had many fertile basins relating to the stream direction.
One of the gutter shaped basins of the mentioned region is Kaystros (Küçük Menderes) basin which is named after the river that flows through it. In this deep basin which is composed from two components, Kilbianon plain to the east and Kaystros plain to the west, native tribes which were called as Kilbians and Kaysterians had lived.
With the assistance of both epigraphic and archaeological evidences it can be said that the Kaysterians started urbanization after the 1st century BC and the Kilbians in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD.
In this study history of the less known ancient settlement of Kaystros basin situated on a mountain slope, Palaiapolis and its close environment will be treated in the light of evidences at hand.
Keywords: Lydia, Kaystros, Yukarı Kilbiani, Palaiapolis
DOI Number: 10.9737/hist.2017.518